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with a limit in the frequency


Attention! Exist translational errors

©2009 ISBN 978-960-931414-5 | ©2010 ISBN 978-960-93-2431-1 | ©2012 ISBN 978-960-93-4040-3




They exist all clues, that a multitude of particular phenomena that are observed in the structure of matter and which can be described with especial terminology, they constitute special cases of more general phenomena, that are observed in the daily experience and are analyzed with philosophical thought. General phenomena, such as are the motion, change of speed, time interval, length and angle, circular motion, frequency and rhythm etc.




www.kosmologia.gr ©2009-10

ISBN 978-960-93-2431-1




The speed c of the light results from the equations of Maxwell, that include phenomena (μο, εο, zo) where belong in the electromagnetism. In the course of time, the electromagnetism and the motion of electron constituted a fascinating, precious and inexhaustible field for research. A big piece of science, technology and particularly the physics are connected with the speed of the light c and its relation with the electromagnetism. A creative brain can't to don't observe and don't succumb in the temptation to correlate some known types of physics for the phenomena that belong in the electromagnetism, with types for phenomena that describe the simple motions of the big bodies.


Magnetic Penetrability of free space μο = x 10-7 Η/m = 12,566368 x10-7 Henry /m

Dielectric Constant of free space εο = 1/36π 109 = 8,854 x 10-12 Farad /m

Characteristic resistance of free space zo = √(μοο ) = μο c ~ 377 Ohm

The speed of the light in the free space is given from the relation cο = 1/√(μο εο)


Henry = Volt sec / Ampere = Ω sec (Resistance V/A)

Farad = Ampere sec / Volt = 1/Ω sec = Ω-1 sec (Conductance A/V)

Henry x Farad = sec2

Ohm = Volt / Ampere


c2 = 1 / μο εο      cο = 1 /√(μο εο )


(μο / εο ) = Ω = 1,2 x 102 π = 120 π


From the relations c2 = 1/μο εο  and  c = 1/√(μο εο)  we find :

μο = 1 / c2 εο  and  εο = 1 / c2 μο


(μο / εο ) = √1,419254 x105 =3,767 x102 Ω = μο c = 1,2 x102 π =120π


μο c = 1/c εο = zo


μο c = RESISTANCE      |     εο c = CONDUCTANCE

(H /m) m/s = H / sec       |       (F/m) m/s = F/sec


Henry = Volt x sec / Ampere = Ω x sec (Resistance R=V/I)

Farad = Ampere x sec / Volt = 1/Ω x sec = Ω-1 sec (Conductance S=I/V)

Henry x Farad = sec2


1 Farad = 1 Coulomb / 1 Volt (C= Q/V)

1 Volt = 1 Joule / 1 Coulomb (V= P/I = IR)

1 Ampere = 1 Coulomb / sec (I= Q/t)

1 Coulomb = 1 Ampere x sec (Q= I t)

1 Ohm = 1 Volt / 1 Ampere (kg m2 s-3 A-2)



The magnetic penetrability μο and the dielectric constant εο are from the first phenomena which are presented in our visible world by the motion in to space and which are connected with particular phenomena of microscopic space and exclusively in the structure of matter. The phenomenon of solid mass is presented by fast and alternating fluctuations in the trans­fer of wave energy, while in our visible world the mass is appeared like a perfectly separate and self-existent phenomenon. Similar, the phenomena of electricity and magnetic field are presented, so as if they do not have equivalence with the phenomena of motion in the materi­al world. A potential comprehension of these phenomena (that mathematically receive the values of μο and εο) with equivalent terms from the motion of bodies, it will constitute a gate for the comprehension and for the cross-correlation of many other phenomena in the struc­ture of matter and about the relation between of physical forces.

It has become more than a suspicion, that certain from the phenomena that are described in the physics as irrelevantly and separately are intermediary situations or particular cases of most known phenomena, particularly of the motion. Between these phenomena, we expect that is the dielectric constant of the free space εο = 8,8542 x10-12 F/m and the magnetic penetrability μο = 12,56636 x10-7 H /m , from that results the biggest speed of electromagnetic waves (c = 1 / √ εο μο ). 

μο = 4π x 10-7 Η/m = 12,566368 x10-7 Henry /m

εο = 1/36π 109 = 8,854 x 10-12 Fd /m

G = 6,6725 x10-11  |  c = 2,997924 x108 m/s  |   c G ≈ 0,02

zο = 120π = 376,9 Ω = √(μο / εο) = √1,42 x105

μο = 1,1209977 x10-3

√εο = 2,9755671 x10-6


The frequency fmax = 0,452444 x1042 Hz is result from the magnetic penetrability μο =12,56636 x10-7 Henry /m with the dielectric constant εο= 8,854 x 10-12 Farad /m of the free space, when we consider that the Planck's constant h coincides with a fundamental length λmin = 6,62606 x10-34 m and applying the relation Vc =1/ √μο εο  and the fundamental relation for the co-ordination in electrotechnics T= 2π√L·C. In the type T= 2π√L·C we consider the length  λmin = hbar 2π :

L = μο λmin = 83,265508 x10-41 Henry

C = εο λmin = 58,667135 x 10-46 Farad

T2 = (83,26550 x10-41 ) (58,66713 x10-46 )= 4884,95 x10-87

(Henry x Farad = sec2 )

T = √4,88495 x10-84 = 2,2102 x 10-42 sec 

f = 1/2,2102 x10-42 = 0,45244 x1042 Hz

Henry = zo sec → sec = Henry/zo  Really 83,265508 x10-41 / 376,9 = 2,21 x10-42

Farad = sec /zo → zo =sec /Farad → sec=Farad x zo


1 From mathematic opinion, it is not error we erase the unit of metre from the μο and the εο with their multiplication on any quantity of length. If the μο and the εο have an unit Henry /m and Farad /m, when we multiply them with any quantity of length, the metres are erased and remain units cleanly Henry and Farad. Here, we selected this quantity of length that we have consider as more likely, in order to we advance and we find an exit in certain questions. We selected, initially, as quantity of length the number of the constant h and testly the length Compton e) of the electron. If the numbers that we select to give them an unit, these coincide to they have a dimensional content in other units in the physics, this coincidence does not prohibit mathematically we take these numbers as clean quantities, for the measurement of some other phenomena, with any unit we wish to do.

We use only the number and not the dimensional content. From the view of physical phenomena, they can be placed objections. For example, if in the type V = √(GM/r) we put in the denominator for the radius r the radius of the moon, while for mass in the numerator the mass of the Earth, then mathematically the type is correct and rightly results the units. However, we will find a speed that likely it does not express a real motion. Consequently, in our case here, with phenomena μο and εο, from the opinion of the physics can to be placed objections, because the length -with which we multiply, as is the λmin- is not determined for what and how it is in reference with lengths or surfaces, that would had as result the values of these phenomena.





Now, it is not privilege of few leading physicists to speak about the Universe and its limits with the terms of Science and with the language of numbers. Whoever can thinks and searches theoretically with the knowledge of a mediocre student in medium education ! Because the Universe has constant min and max limits... forever and everywhere.




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The minimum possible time and the energy 


The change in the quantity of energy at the free space causes wave phenomena, because the transfer of energy does not become in null time and finds some resistance (similar as an initial impulse in a stagnant quantity of water). How much big number of waves can goes through in the unit of time? The number of waves that is repeated can increase unlimitedly ? If yes, then this would mean, that also the time intervals that intervene from a wave up to next can minimize unlimitedly also accordingly, the change that causes the waves can become in infinitely small time intervals or in null time. Also, the unlimited increase of frequency, would mean even infinite quantity of wave energy is transfer in the unit of time. Consequently, after exist a maximum limit in the number of waves and a minimal limit in the time interval that these waves can be repeated, this limit means, that the highest frequency results from some change that becomes in the minimal possible time (or minimal period). The most slight possible time and the biggest rythm of repetition of waves are related with the maximum marginal speed that we consider  the speed of light (that is to say, the speed that these waves have in to free space always). The maximum limit in the number of waves per unit of time means still a maximum limit in the quantity of energy that can be transmitted with waves in the unit of time.

<•> The speed c remains constant at the creation of mass or for its maintenance and only changes the acceleration and the deceleration, that is to say, the time in that is acquired the fastest speed Vc.

Vmax = c = amin x Tmax = amax x Tmin

Vmax = c = amin / fmin = amax / fmax


From the physical interpretation, already we have concluded the connection between of material carriers with the existence of simultaneous quantity of energy, which is presented with the form of " empty " but finite space. Already we have concluded the relation of nuclear force with the dynamic connection that has the material things in the minimal distance from the finite space and immediately with the total energy of the completed Universe. Already we have comprehended how the completed Universe is permanently present and participates in the presence of individual things, even in most microscopic dimensions. The research in microscopic dimensions is research about the limits of the Universe. The existence of limits in the Universe and in certain physical activities would not be revealed by the research in microscopic dimensions, if the limits did not exist. They are exist limits in the Universe, such as roughly we have determined them and for this reason, we have the advantage we detect the limits from observations in the most microscopic activities.






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