The longest distance (removal) in the finite and
isotropic space theoretically corresponds in divergence 180º. The return behind (approach) in
the initial point begins in the 180º degrees.
The variation of the straight line motion,
in the perfect circle theoretically becomes the longest divergence in the 90º degree and at
the return in 90º (or 270º) degrees.
If this length of longest distance in the finite space,
we dynamically see it so as a body that is moved with constant speed. In equal times are covered equal
arcs. The longest length of the first semicircle (arc of 180º degrees) is covered in the same time
lapse t that
is covered the other arc of 180º in the return. In the circular motion with constant speed it is
considered that exists acceleration (centripetal), because the address of motion changes.
It can become a paradoxical
theoretical observation in the phenomenon of circular motion, in that leads the
view about the curve
space, that
imposes a space finite and isotropic, with a limit in the longest removal for all things. We can
consider the phase of removal such as a motion slowed down, concerning a arbitrary point of
departure. The rythm of deceleration increases with the lapse of time and, in the
longest distance
that finds in the 180º degrees, where the removal stops, we can consider that the speed is zeroed
for a moment.
In the phase of return and approach behind in the
initial point, the motion can be considered accelerating to the initial point, up to speed
acquires the biggest value in the point of departure.
In the circular motion coexist two
opposite motions and equivalents two opposite time intervals and intermediary
phases, where the angle of divergence of
straight line becomes biggest. The observation of circular motion with constant speed and its
crosscorrelation with equivalent phenomenon of regular deceleration or acceleration in straight
line remind us an other strange equivalence in the physics. It reminds the
coincidental equivalence that it tried unsuccessfully understands Einstein,
about the inertia mass and gravitational mass. A observer that is accelerated in
a closed laboratory and pushed contrary to the address of the motion he can
consider, that a gravitational field attract him, if he does not find a way to
search outside of his laboratory. Similarly, here we observe the case of the circular
motion it is described as phenomenon of straight line motion, that is altered and reversed
periodically.
The above short description of the circular or
periodical motion such as a phenomenon of immobility or stagnant situation and
such as a phenomenon of
periodical change with limits and inversion in the motion acquires particular theoretical interest
from the application of this idea in the motion of the light. Do not forget, that the motion of the
light does not become only to a direction (as the material bodies) except when the conditions
prevent its transmission. After we immediately consider the finite space with a limit in the
longest distance and inevitable the divergence from the rectilinear motion,
comes in the brain the thought about the propagation of the light. Because the
radius in the finite space (not Euclidean space, as if the motion becomes always on the surface of very big ball) cannot be unlimited straight line
and becomes circumference with the increase of the distance. How it can influence the motion of
electromagnetic waves, this phenomenon of obligatory divergence of the straight line, which we can
consider also as if an opposite and small force does prevent smoothly the rectilinear motion ?
The " spheres " of the waves they are removed in a radius where ceases to is straight line with the
increase of distance (and this means not concentric circles and deformity in the spherical form).
It exists an important detail still,
when we observe this detail in the above theoretical form of the equivalent
circular motion. We can detect some phenomena of high speed in periodical change. This detail results when the circular motion is
not perfect circular, but almost circular (≈360º). In the case where the circular motion,
(which
we describe equivalent as periodical phenomenon of deceleration/acceleration), does not become in
perfect circle 360º, then the two phases of longest removal and approach in the initial point,
probably are not precisely equal. In other words, the rythm of equivalent deceleration and the
rythm of equivalent acceleration and the times that develop these two motions possibly have a small
difference.
They exist clues, that with a very small difference in
these two phases of the circular motion (or in corresponding phenomena of periodical change) in
the microscopic creation of matter is result a leftover or a alleviation of energy or a new
phenomenon...
If the rythm of deceleration (in a
natural process)
differ from the rythm of acceleration (at the inversion of process), then the time
interval t in which the
speed Vmax is acquired theoretically will differ than the time interval t' in that the speed is
decreased. The rythm of deceleration with the rythm of acceleration (in the natural changes) likely
they are not equal and this inequality rather is related with that the motion is not interrupted
perfectly and the changes does not acquire null value. This thought springs from a lot of
observations. (...)
They exist all clues, that
multitude of particular phenomena that is observed in the structure of matter
and which can be described with different terminology in the scientific
area, they constitute special cases of more general phenomena that are
observed in the daily experience and are analyzed with philosophical
thought. Phenomena, such as are the motion, change of speed, time interval,
covered length, circular motion, frequency and rythm etc.

Attention! Many translational errors
are exist.
LIKELY LIMITS OF THE SIMPLEST RELATIONS AND
OBSERVATIONS
If the most minimum rythm of acceleration
amin
is expressed by the constant G  that is fixed with masses M of one kilo where
are attracted with force F when are found in distance 1m  then this rythm
amin
in combination with the known limit of superior speed c us helps we advance in
certain first calculations about the likely limits of the Universe. With the simplest script
that is based on two universal constants (c and G) finds following potential sizes
of time and length (length of radius, diameter or perimetric) :
(The supposal of
accelerating mass 1kg with a
force 6,6725 x 10^{11} N and with a limit in the superior speed
c, was the initial thought from that began the effort to expressed with
terms of physics, the philosophical
interpretation about the Universe as completed and constant on contrary to the individual
materially things).
WE SUPPOSE that a force F size 6,6725 x 10^{11} Ν
accelerate a body mass =1kg
1N =1kgr • m/sec^{2}
1ly = 9,46073 x10^{15} m
1 Mpc = 10^{6} pc
≈ 3,2615 x10^{6} ly x 9,46073 x10^{15} m ≈
30,856170 x 10^{21} m
The acceleration is result general from the type
a = F/m
a =F/M → a = 6,6725 x 10^{11} Ν /1kg = 6,6725 x 10^{11} m /sec^{2}
In how much time T the speed of mass
M =1kg
will become equal with the speed of light c, when it begins from null speed, that is to
say in how much time it will become Vm=c ?
It's law of the speed :
V=a t
a=V / t → t = V / a
If V=c then Tm = 2,9979245 x 10^{8} m/sec / 6,6725 x 10^{11} m/sec^{2} =
4,49295x10^{18} sec
= c/G
A body M=1kg and acceleration
a=6,6725 x 10^{11} m/s^{2} takes
the speed c in time inerval T=4,49295 x10^{18} sec, in
other units 14,2372994125 x10^{10} years. In this time interval T how much
distance S in linear motion (straigh line) it can have covered ? This we find from
the law of distance : S=1/2 a t^{2}
Sm = 1/2 x am x tm^{2} →
(Distance S of mass m = 1kg)
Sm = 1/2 x (6,6725 x10^{11} m/sec^{2} ) x (4,49295x10^{18} sec)^{2} =
6,73475432 x10^{26} m
1pc (parsec)= 3,086333 x10^{16}
m
0,673475432 x10^{27} m / 3,086333 x10^{16}
= 2,1821216 x10^{10} pc
Also, if we multiply the time T= 4,49295 x10^{18} sec
multiplied by
the meters where the light moved per sec, so we find the meters where the light will have moved in
this number T, with its regular speed from the start. In time 4,49295 x10^{18} sec
of the body 1kg, the light will have moved twofold distance Slight :
S light= (4,49295x10^{18} sec) x (2,997924 x10^{8} m/sec)= 1,346952 x10^{27} m
= c^{2}/G
IN PARSEC:
1,346952 x10^{27} m / 3,086333 x 10^{16}
= 4,36424 x 10^{10} pc
Finally, in the time Τ=4,49295 x10^{18} sec
where the body M=1kg is need to arrives in speed of the light c with acceleration a= 6,6725 x 10^{11} m/sec^{2}
, the light in same time do double distance S Universe (
0,673475432 x10^{27} m x 2 )=
1,346952 x10^{27} m (Theorem Merton about the speed until a limit
in the increase).
Dividing the
time
T = Vc /
amin =
4,49295x10^{18} sec
by 2π
we find :
T / 2π = 0,449295x10^{19} sec /
6,2831852 = 0,07150752 x 10^{19} sec
(0,07150752 x 10^{19} sec) x (31,68808781 x
10^{9} ) = 2,2659365 x 10^{10} = 22,659365 x 10^{9} years
1 earthly year ≈ 31,5576 x 10^{6}
sec  1sec = 31,688087 x 10^{9}
year

We supposed that a mass 1kg is accelerated with
regularly applied the force that results from the constant G of gravity. Actually, the free
space is not neither level neither absolutely empty.

SAMPLES
ΤUniverse =
4,492955 x10^{18} sec
SUniverse =
6,734769 x10^{26} m
= 2,1823619 x10^{4} Mpc
(1st scenario)
SUniverse = 1,346954 x10^{27} m =
4,364724 x10^{4} Mpc
(2d scenario)
SUniverse = 6,734769 x10^{26} m / 2π =
1,07187183 x10^{26} m
= 3,473337 x10^{3} Mpc (3d scenario)
SUniverse = 1,346954 x10^{27} m / 2π =
2,14374297 x10^{26} m =
6,946674 x10^{3} Mpc (4d scenario)
Do not lose the continuity !
1 year =
365,25 days x24hours x60minutes x60sec =31,5576 x10^{6} sec (31
557 600 sec)
1 sec = 1/
31,5576 x10^{6} = 3,168808781 x10^{8}
earthly years
1 light year (ly) =
31,5576 x10^{6} sec
x 2,9979245 x10^{8} m/sec =
9,46073 x 10^{15} m
1 parsec = 3,2615 ly = 3,0857 x10^{16} m
1Mpc = 10^{6}
pc =
3,2615 ly
x10^{6}
x
9,46073 x10^{15} m = 3,0857 x10^{22} m
pi
= 3,14159265358979323846...
√2 = 1,4142135
Observe that when we describe
the free space as finite and with divergence from the rectilinear motion,
then are presented trigonometrical relations and numbers
of geometry in
the circle.
Angle in degreesº for
arc length: S 360 / 2π r
Length of arc S per degree =
φº 2π r / 2 x 180º
Stotal
= V
T = 2π r (For regular speed
V)
Radius r =
Stotal / 2 π
 Diameter d =
Stotal /π
String
of arc 180º =
Diameter d
String
of arc 90º = √2
x r
Unit of angular speed is
the radian per second (1rad /sec)
1rad/sec = 0,159Hz
and 1Hz =6,283 rad/sec
Centripetal
acceleration acentr
= V^{2} / r (Observation:
The centripetal acceleration results without the mass. The mass however in
the nature is presented as a result by the change in a speed).
Acceleration (relation with length S)
a = V^{2} / S
( a=V V / V t = V/t) → V =√ a S
Acceleration (relation with time t)
a = V / t → V = a t
Acceleration (relation with frequency)
a = V f → V=a / f
Acceleration (relation with time and length)
a = S / t^{2}
The type Vκ
= 2π r / T has particular importance for the case, because it
connects the speed with time and with the perfect circular motion between
them and concerning the radius with the import of relation 2pi. The type
resolved as for period T, radius r and 2π is become:
Vκ
= 2π r / T →
T = 2π r / Vκ →
r = T x V /
2π → 2 π = Τ x
Vκ / r
LENGTH OF A ARC
In order to we find
the length of arc that corresponds in each degree on a
perfect circle we use the type: Arc length =
φ° 2π r /360 (where φ° is the angle
in degrees)
Surface of ball: S = 4πR^{2}
For radius: r =√S/4π
MORE INVESTIGATION WITH
THE FOLLOWING RELATIVE AND KNOWN TYPES
:
Linear speed V=S/t (length
of arc where be the motion / corresponding time)
Angular speed ω=φ/t (angle
where follows the επιβατ radius / cor. time)
Relation of linear and
angular speed : V=2πR/t and ω=2π/t
It result: V=ω R
Relation between angular speed and frequency: ω=2π f
ω = V / r = 2π f = 2π / T = φ T → φ = ω / T = ω f →
V = ω r = 2π f r = 2π r / T = S / t → T = 2π /ω = 2π r / V = 1 / f →
f = ω / 2π = V / 2π r = 1 / T → r = V / ω = V / 2π f = V T / 2π

CONCISE TABLE OF SAMPLES ABOUT
MAX LENGTH S
and TIME T OF UNIVERSE
S_{light}
Universe =
1,346954 x10^{27} m = c^{2}
/ G 
T
Universe =
4,492954
x10^{18} sec
= c / G

S_{mass}
Universe = 6,73477 x10^{26} m

4,492954
x10^{18} sec
= 14,237312 x10^{10} years



R Universe =
2,14374 x10^{26} m 
T
Universe / 2π = 7,150758 x 10^{17}

S Universe /
2 = 6,73477 x10^{26} m 
T
Universe x 2 = 8,985908 x10^{18}

c^{2}
/ S Universe = 6,6725 x 10^{11} =G 
T
Universe x π = 1,41150 x10^{19}



S Universe^{2}
= 1,814285 x 10^{54} 
T Universe^{2}
= 2,01866 x 10^{37}

1 / S Universe =
0,7424158 x 10^{27} =G/c^{2}

1 / T
Universe = 2,225709 x 10^{19}
=G/c 



S Universe /
T Universe = 2,997925 x 10^{8} =c 
R Universe^{2}
= 4,59562 x 10^{52} 
1/ R Universe =
4,66474479 x 10^{27} 
D Universe^{2}
= 1,838257 x 10^{53} 
1/ D Universe =
2,33237 x 10^{27} 


For S_{mass}
Universe = 6,73477 x10^{26} m
Length of arc per degree =
1,87076 x10^{24} m 
For S_{light}
Universe =
1,346954 x10^{27} m
Length of arc per degree =
3,74153 x10^{24} m 



1st
PUBLICATION IN THE WORLD
www.kosmologia.gr ©200910
ISBN 9789609324311 

WILL BECOME CORRECTIONS
AND WILL BE CONTINUED...
Now, it is not privilege of few leading
physicists to speak about the Universe and its limits with the terms of Science and with the
language of numbers. Whoever can thinks and searches theoretically with the knowledge of
mediocre student of medium education! Because the Universe has constant min and max
limits... forever and everywhere. 
